2016年

美国网评:中国预算少,为何还能建那么多基建?

2017-09-13 00:53 一优租赁 点击次数 :

外国网民:中国基建发达,却是发展中国家

  原文地址:https://www.quora.com

  Why is China - a developing country so ahead of the US - the "greatest" developed country in infrastructure?

  为什么中国,作为一个发展中国家,却在基建领域远远领先于有着“最伟大”的发达国家之称的美国?

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  外国网民评论:

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  Paul B B.Ec. Economics (2016)

  Answered 19h ago

  That seems like a loaded question and I’m not sure if you’re entirely correct. But I’ll take it for granted that China is “so ahead in infrastructure”.

  这似乎是一个诱导性的问题,我不知道你的观点是否完全正确。但我对于中国“在基础设施上如此领先”这一看法是赞同的。

  The reason is probably that the USA built most of its infrastructure a long time ago. Once it’s there there is little incentive to upgrade it. Why spend billions when you can make do with what you’ve got? Also once the capital stock of a country reaches equilibrium a large fraction of savings (pretty much all of it) is used up in maintaining existing capital.

  原因可能是美国很久以前就建设了大部分的基础设施。一旦它已经存在,没有什么理由来升级它了。当你能用所拥有的东西来完成想做的事时,为什么还要额外花费数十亿美元呢?此外,一旦一个国家的资本存量达到均衡,大部分储蓄(几乎全部)都被用于维持现有资本。

  Rewind to 1990 and China had very little infrastructure. As its economy has boomed it has accumulated capital very rapidly. Now it is at a point where there is too much capital. The government has used investment to employ some of the country’s excess capacity and support an ultimately unsustainable rate of growth. The problem is that the capital will not be able to be maintained. It would require an astronomical savings rate. China wants to transition to a consumption driven economy but how can it do this while simultaneously maintaining a high savings rate to support a huge capital stock?

  倒回1990年看,中国当时的基础设施很少。随着经济的蓬勃发展,资金的积累非常迅速。现在则是处于一个资金过剩的阶段了。政府就利用投资来开发该国的一些过剩能力,并支持最终不可持续的增长率。问题是资本不能一直维持下去。这将需要一个天文数字的储蓄率。中国要转型为消费型经济,但如何实现这一目标呢?同时保持高储蓄率来支持巨额资本存量?

  Martin Dièdre studied at Aix-Marseille University

  Answered 19h ago

  You have to understand China is not a typical developing country. This term is a bit antiquated in that it was more appropriate during the 80–90’s to describe the emerging countries that were not fully developed not part of USSR and not Third World Countries.

  你要知道,中国并非一个典型的发展中国家。

  “发展中国家”这个称谓已经有点不合时宜了,它更适用于形容上世纪八九十年代的一些新兴国家——它们既不是苏联的一部分,同时也不属于第三世界,这些国家当时尚未充分发展起来。

  China is what we call a newly indusrialized country. Its economy is still not completely dominated by services and trade because the industry is very strong and predominant. Among the features we can find: export-driven and fast-growing economy developing urban centers large corporates strong political leadership and high human development index.

  中国是我们常说的新兴工业国。在中国的经济中,由于强大的工业占据了支配性地位,服务业与贸易尚未完全成为经济的主导。

  在这些特点中,我们可以看出,中国拥有由出口驱动的快速增长的经济、建设中的城镇中心、众多的大型企业、强有力的政治领导以及较高的人类发展指数。

  Here is a map of newly industrialized countries (red).

  这张地图显示了世界上的新兴工业国(图中所示的红色部分)。

  Terry Newman Ten years living and doing business in China.

  Answered 16h ago

  Because US politicians in order to get votes and corporate support have eroded the tax base to the point that basic infrastructure (and also other basic services like education and health) can no longer be effectively funded. Adding to their woes is the fact that Washington has been paralysed for 12 of the last 16 years due to the failure of either party to control simultaneously the Presidency and the legislature.

  因为美国的政客们为了获得选票和政治团体的赞助已经侵蚀了税收的基础,以至于基本的基础建设(还有其他基本的服务,如教育和医疗)不能再得到充足的拨款。一个令这种情况雪上加霜的事实是,在过去16年中,华盛顿政府一直因两党不能同时控制总统和立法机关而陷于瘫痪。

  Joel Phelan Former USMC NCO and Veteran Programmer Wiggin Libertarian

  Answered 17h ago

  Joel Phelan 前美国海军陆战队士官,资深程序员,维京的自由主义者

  It’s because they started building their infrastructure about 80–100 years AFTER the USA did. Thus the engineering was standardized (mostly by the USA) material costs were down and technology existed that they could reasonably implement that the USA cannot without having to tear out the OLD infrastructure (and as another person answered much of the US’ spending is in maintaining the existing infrastructure roads bridges and train tracks where as China because they (comparatively) have nothing and had almost literally nothing in the way of modern infrastructure 30 years ago did not have these maintenance costs. It’s a problem they will run into going forward.

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